Sunday, June 11, 2017

Two Simple Rules Govern Goal-Oriented Motor Learning in the Brain. How Do I Know This? Part III

Abstract

In Part II, I revealed that the two rules of goal-oriented motor learning are, first, to eliminate connections with conflicting motor commands, and second, to eliminate connections that pursue the wrong goals. Below I explain what a goal is and how to go about eliminating bad motor connections.

What Is a Goal?

There are two types of goals, simple goals and complex goals. A simple goal is the hoped-for occurrence of a single event such as the detection of a learned pattern. A complex goal consists of any number of elementary goals, either a sequence of pattern detections or multiple sequences of pattern detections. The brain uses two types of hierarchies, one to manage pattern detections and the other for sequence detections. Given that a pattern is a group of concurrent sensory signals, it pays to think of a pattern detector as a complex or high-level sensor.

Based on my research, I determined that a basic goal in the brain's sequence hierarchy is the hoped-for occurrence of a short sequence of pattern detections. I discovered from reading the book of Zechariah that every sequence detector in memory is a unit of seven nodes and each sequence can detect multiple speeds. In other words, each sequence has multiple goals. I will not go into the details in this article but this is implemented in the cortical columns of the neocortex. So, in order to achieve a goal, a sequence detector in memory must generate a motor command that results in the detection of the hoped-for event and the emission of a recognition spike or signal.

"Walking" and "feet" are used repeatedly in both Revelation and Zechariah to symbolize motor output. "Eye" is the metaphor for a pattern detector. I first deduced that the church of Thyatira symbolized the motor system of the brain because it is the fourth, or middle church, of the seven churches. Why is this significant? It is because, in the first message to the seven churches, we read the following (italics mine):
Rev 2:2. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
The original Greek word translated "midst" in the King James version literally means "center" or "middle". The "seven golden candlesticks", we are told elsewhere, are the seven churches. The opening message to the church of Thyatira (Revelation 2) is all about "eyes" and "feet":
Rev 2:18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;
The sensorimotor connection is undeniable. Immediately, we see a direct link between pattern detection (eyes) and motor output (feet). Both are refined in fire, meaning that they have been tried and tested during the learning process. In chapter 3 of Zechariah we read the following:
Zech 3:7. “Thus says the Lord of hosts, ‘If you will walk in My ways and if you will perform My service, then you will also govern My house and also have charge of My courts, and I will grant you free access among these who are standing here.
Here Yahweh is speaking to Joshua the high priest. Joshua symbolizes a sensorimotor unit. He is told to walk (motor output) in the ways of Yahweh (no fornication/adultery) and to perform Yahweh's service (no idolatry) in the temple. Joshua's duty (service or goal) is to act so as to detect a specific pattern. The main lesson of this verse is that pattern detectors are their own goals. The brain achieves its goals by sending specific motor commands that result in the detection of specific patterns.

How to Get Rid of Bad Motor Connections

It is one thing to detect a motor error but it is another to correct it. If a motor signal does not result in the hope-for detection, should its connection be immediately disconnected? Even more problematic, if a motor conflict is detected, how do we know which connection is the culprit? Is it the connection that just fired or is it the one that fired right before it? It could also be a temporary error. Here is what Revelation says about it:
Rev 2:21. And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.
Rev 2:22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.
Rev 2:23. And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
Verse 21 tells us that Jezebel is given time to repent of her fornication. Why is Jezebel given time to repent of her fornication? My take on it is that there is no way to tell right away who the real culprit is. The strange thing is that, not only is Jezebel not given time to repent of her idolatry, but the message to Thyatira says nothing about how to eliminate idolatrous connections. Why is that? The answer, as we shall see below, is that the idolaters are automatically destroyed with the fornicators.

If the conflicts continue, Jezebel is cast onto a bed of sickness, meaning that she must stop all new connection activities while the problem is being solved. Those that commit adultery with her are also severely punished. This is a way of saying that motor connections have strengths that will be weakened if the conflicts do not go away. But how do connections acquire their strength? The answer is found in verse 23: "and I will give unto every one of you according to your works." In other words, a motor connection is rewarded every time its motor signal is successful in achieving its expected goal.

Now comes the clincher that solves the entire puzzle. Verse 23 declares: "And I will kill her children with death." Why punish the children and not the adults? This is yet another strange thing for us to digest but keep in mind that this is a metaphorical text. It turns out that conflicting connections are invariably among the youngest ones, i.e., the ones that have not yet gained strength according to their works. Since idolaters are rarely or never rewarded, they are the first to be eliminated. So, weakening all the connections when conflicting signals are detected is sufficient to get rid of both fornicators and idolaters in one fell swoop.

Most muscles in the body can receive commands from thousands of sources originating from many areas of the cerebral cortex. Motor learning alone would not be enough to keep them from conflicting with one another. Luckily, the brain has another way to restrict access to its actuators. Zechariah calls it the branch. Only a relatively small branch of the sequence hierarchy is awake at any one time. The branch represents whatever the brain is paying attention to. Motor commands can only be sent from the currently awakened branch.

Conclusion

The book of Zechariah complements the book of Revelation and vice versa. Both are treasure troves of information about the organization of the brain. There is so much knowledge about the brain, consciousness and even fundamental physics packed into these two visions, it would take several books on the topics covered to do it full justice. Still, the whole thing will seem almost too simple. Contrary to the expectations of the mainstream AI community, no complex math or convoluted engineering is required. It turns out that the problem of intelligence is not one of complexity but one of searching for a needle in a haystack. It is the kind of search that could take us hundreds if not thousands of years to conduct. Fortunately for the world, we won't have to.

In this article, I attempted to show that the secret of sensorimotor learning is here and available to anyone who is willing to hear the message. And it is not just motor learning. The full secret of true artificial intelligence is within our grasps if we heed the message. Indeed, as the book says, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."

See Also:

Contrary to Claims in the Scientific Literature, the Cerebellum Cannot Generate Speech. How Do I Know This?
Short-term Attention Span Lasts 12.6 s and it Takes 35 ms to Switch from one Subject to Another. How do I Know This?
200 Million Horsemen and the Corpus Callosum

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